02.08.2019
 Essay about Pathophysiology of COPD

This assignment will make clear the pathophysiology of the disease process chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It will analyze how this disease influences an individual taking a look at the natural, psychological and social elements. It will attempt by mentioning a patient who was admitted into a medical keep with a great exacerbation of COPD. Furthermore with assistance of Gibbs model of expression (as cited in Bulman & Sicherheit, 2004) it will eventually demonstrate just how an experience altered an attitude. According to the Nursing and Midwifery Council, (NMC) Code of Professional Conduct (NMC, 2005) regarding protecting patient info no titles or locations will be divulged. Therefore over the assignment the individual will be called John. David is a 57 year old gentleman who has recently been married to Mavis for 2 years. Steve was admitted to the ward with extreme breathlessness coughing and abnormal sputum creation. By looking through John's remarks it was uncovered this was a great exacerbation of COPD.

To understand John's condition it is helpful to look at how a normal breathing works. The function in the respiratory System is to supply the body system with o2 and take out carbon dioxide (Marieb, 2004). According to Waugh and Grant (2004) it also helps maintain body temperature and eliminate extra water from your body. The Respiratory system involves the mouth, nose cavity, cou, larynx, trachea, bronchi and the lungs (Seeley, Stephens & Tate, 2000). Air goes in through possibly the mouth or nose which will humidifies and cleans the environment. (Cohen & Wood, 2000) merging right into a common chamber called the oropharynx (Watson, 2000). Air flow then leaves to the cou, a short, funnel-shaped tube that transports air flow to the larynx (Waugh & Grant, 2004). The air gets into the larynx which is layered with mucous membrane and proceeds to the trachea, which can be formed of semi-circular the fibrous connective tissue cartilage rings. The lining membrane from the trachea is made up of hair skin cells and mucous cells which usually trap allergens and sweeps them toward the bronchi. The bronchi are also covered with mucous membrane and ringed with cartilage (Marieb, 2004). Every single bronchus can be lined with mucous membrane layer. (Martini, 2000) and stretches into a lung where it subdivides creating smaller bronchioles (Watson, 2000). Bronchioles terminate with the alveoli which are the efficient units pertaining to gas exchange and are thin, moist and surrounded by capillaries (Clancy & McVicar 2001). Inhaled air travels through these air passage to the alveoli. Blood is usually pumped out of the heart through the pulmonary arterial blood vessels to the capillary vessels surrounding the alveoli. (Shaw, 2005) The oxygen with the inhaled surroundings diffuses out of the alveoli in the blood, whilst carbon dioxide inside the blood goes into the alveoli to be exhaled (Tortora & Grabowskie, 2003). The oxygen-rich blood is definitely returned towards the heart throughout the pulmonary veins. The lung area can grow and contract without rubbing during breathing due to the pleura, a thin membranous composition (Tamir, 2002). The visceral pleura encompass the lungs, while the parietal pleura collection the wall membrane of the thoracic cavity. These types of pleura are separated by a small fluid-filled space known as the pleural cavity. Fresh air requires operate and before the lungs can be inflated, a pressure alter must occur. The elastic properties with the lung let ventilation to take place more efficiently and the fluid inside the pleural cavity serves as a lubricant that permits the lungs to slide against the breasts wall (Marieb, 2004).

John notified employees that having been diagnosed with COPD twelve months back by his general practitioner (G. P. ). He added that he repeatedly traveled to his G. P. as he had been sense breathless, that was becoming worse and was present each day, more so when he exercised. This kind of breathlessness he revealed was accompanied by a coughing alongside sputum production. John's G. G inquired if he smoked cigarettes and how a large number of, John knowledgeable him he has smoked cigarettes around 35 cigarettes a day for 42 years. The...

References: lexander, M. Farreneheit., Fawcett, T. M., & Runciman, G. J. (Eds. ). (2004). Nursing practice hospital and home -- The adult (2nd impotence. ). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.

Adriaanse, They would., Van Reek, J., Zandbelt, L., & Evers, G. (1991). Nursing staff ' smoking worldwide. A review of 73 surveys on rns ' cigarette consumption in 21 countries in the period 1959-1988. Intercontinental Journal of Nursing Research, 28, 361-375.

Booker, 3rd there’s r. (2005). Long-term obstructive pulmonary disease and nice suggestions. Nursing regular, 19(22).

English Lung Base (2005). COPD. Retrieved Drive 14, 2006, from http://www.lunguk.org/copd.aspBritish Thoracic World (1997). BTS guidelines to get the supervision of persistent obstructive pulmonary disease. Torso, 52(5).

Bulman, C., & Scultz, T. (2004). Refractive practice in nursing (3rd ed. ). Oxford: Blackwell.

Clancy, T., & McVicar, A. (2001). Physiology and anatomy: a homeostatic approach (2nd impotence. ). Birmingham: Arnold.

Cohen, B. L., & Wood, D. L. (2000). Memmler 's the body in health insurance and disease (9th ed. ). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

G 'hulst, A., Maes, To., Bracke, T., Demedts, M Tournoy, T., Joos G., & Brusselle G. (2005). Cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary emphysema in scid-mice is the acquired immune system necessary?. Respiratory Study, 6(147).

Dore, K., & Hoey, T. (1998). Cigarette smoking practices, knowledge and behaviour regarding smoking cigarettes of university hospital nurses. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 4(79).

Emery, Elizabeth. F., Leatherman, N. At the., Burke, At the. J., & MacIntyre, In. R. (1991). Psychological outcomes of a pulmonary rehabilitation software. American school of chest physicians, 42(7).

Engstrom, C., Persson, T., Larsson, H., Ryden, A., & Sullivan, M. (1996). Functional status and well-being in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to find clinical parameters and smoking cigarettes: a descriptive and comparative study. Chest, 51(30).

Gosselink, R. (2003). Controlled breathing and dyspnea in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Log of therapy research and development, 40(5).

Jeffery, G. K. (2001). Remodeling in asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease. American Journal of Respiratory and Crucial Care Medicine, 164(28).

Kanner, R. (1996). Early treatment in persistent obstructive pulmonary disease: an assessment the chest health analyze results. Medical Clinics of North America, 80(4).

Kunik, Meters., & Densmore, D. (2002). Depression and COPD. Nostology, 7(4).

Kunik, M., Roundy, K., Veazey, C., Souchek, J., Richardson, P., Wray, N., & Stanley, Meters. (2005). Astonishingly high prevalence of anxiety and depression in chronic breathing disorders. American college of chest doctors, 127(4).

Mahler, D. A. (1998). Pulmonary rehabilitation. Torso, 113(26).

Mannino, D. Meters. (2003). Persistent obstructive pulmonary disease: classification and epidemiology. Respiratory care journal, 48(12).

Marieb, At the. (2004). Body anatomy & physiology. San Francisco: Pearson Education.

Martini, F. (2000). Fundamentals of anatomy and physiology. Nj-new jersey: Prentice-Hall.

McBride, P. Elizabeth. (1992). The health consequences of smoking. Development of heart diseases. Medical Clinics of America, 76(2).

Nardini, S., Bertoletti, R., Rastelli, V., & Ravelli, D., & Donner, C. (1998). Personal smoking habit and attitude toward smoking among the health staff of a basic hospital. Monaldi Archive pertaining to Chest disease, 53(1).

Breastfeeding & Midwifery council. (2004). Code of professional perform. London: Medical & Midwifery council.

Ohri, C., & Steiner, Meters. (2004). COPD: the disease and non drug treatment. Hospital druggist, 11.

Osman, L. M., & Hyland, M. Elizabeth. (2005). Individual needs and medicine styles in COPD. The European Breathing Society, 14(7).

Seeley, R. R., Stephens, T. D., & Tate, P. (2000). Anatomy and physiology (5th ed. ). USA: McGraw- Hill higher education.

Sandford, A. J., Weir, T. M., & Pare, P. G. (1997). Genetic risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. European Respiratory Log, 10(42).

Shaw, L. (2005). Anatomy and physiology. Cheltenham: Nelson ThornesSinger, H., Ruchinskas, R., Riley, K., Broshek, D., & Barth, T. (2001). How the operation affects men mentally of end-stage lung disease. American university of upper body physicians, 120(4).

Strassels, T. A., Smith, D. L., Sullivan, T. D., & Mahajan, G. (1987). The cost of treating COPD in the United States. American school of breasts physicians, 119(9).

Tamir, Elizabeth. (2002). Our body made simple: a guide to anatomy, physiology, and disease. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.

Taylor, S., & Field, M. (Eds. ). (1993). Sociology of into the health care: an intro for rns (3rd education. ). London, uk: Blackwell Scientific Publications.

Tinkelman, O., & Corsello, L. (2003). Persistent obstructive pulmonary disease: the impact occurs earlier than we think. American Journal of Managed Treatment, 9(6).

Tortora, G. J., & Grabowski, S. Ur. (2003). Rules of anatomy and physiology. New York: HarperCollins College Marketers.

Turner, A., Foster, Meters., & Manley, S. E. (2005). The practice of occupational remedy: an introduction towards the treatment of physical dysfunction (5th ed. ). London: Churchill Livingstone.

Trombly, C. A., & RadomskI, M. V. (Eds. ). (2000). Work-related therapy intended for physical dysfunction. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Truck der Schans, C. P., Postma, Deb. S., Koeter, G. They would., & Rubin, B. K. (1999). Therapy and bronchial mucus travel. European Respiratory Journal, 13(8).

Verra, Farreneheit., Escudier, Electronic., Lebargy, Farrenheit., Bernaudin, M. F., De Cremoux, They would., & Bignon. J. (1995). Ciliary abnormalities in bronchial epithelium of smokers, ex- smokers, and nonsmokers. American Journal of Respiratory Essential Care Remedies, 151.

Watson, R. (2000). Anatomy and physiology pertaining to nurses. Edinburgh: Bailliere Tindall.

Waugh, A., & Grant, A. (2004). Ross and Wilson human anatomy in health and health care. (9th ed. ). Edinburgh; Ny: Churchill Livingstone.

Webb, Ur., & Tossell, D. (1999). Social Problems for Carers: Towards Positive Practice (2nd ed. ). London: Arnold.

Young, G. (1995). Perfecting social well being (3rd male impotence. ). London, uk: Macmillan Press.