Essay about Pathophysiology of COPD

This assignment will make clear the pathophysiology of the disease process chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It will analyze how this disease influences an individual taking a look at the natural, psychological and social elements. It will attempt by mentioning a patient who was admitted into a medical keep with a great exacerbation of COPD. Furthermore with assistance of Gibbs model of expression (as cited in Bulman & Sicherheit, 2004) it will eventually demonstrate just how an experience altered an attitude. According to the Nursing and Midwifery Council, (NMC) Code of Professional Conduct (NMC, 2005) regarding protecting patient info no titles or locations will be divulged. Therefore over the assignment the individual will be called John. David is a 57 year old gentleman who has recently been married to Mavis for 2 years. Steve was admitted to the ward with extreme breathlessness coughing and abnormal sputum creation. By looking through John's remarks it was uncovered this was a great exacerbation of COPD.

To understand John's condition it is helpful to look at how a normal breathing works. The function in the respiratory System is to supply the body system with o2 and take out carbon dioxide (Marieb, 2004). According to Waugh and Grant (2004) it also helps maintain body temperature and eliminate extra water from your body. The Respiratory system involves the mouth, nose cavity, cou, larynx, trachea, bronchi and the lungs (Seeley, Stephens & Tate, 2000). Air goes in through possibly the mouth or nose which will humidifies and cleans the environment. (Cohen & Wood, 2000) merging right into a common chamber called the oropharynx (Watson, 2000). Air flow then leaves to the cou, a short, funnel-shaped tube that transports air flow to the larynx (Waugh & Grant, 2004). The air gets into the larynx which is layered with mucous membrane and proceeds to the trachea, which can be formed of semi-circular the fibrous connective tissue cartilage rings. The lining membrane from the trachea is made up of hair skin cells and mucous cells which usually trap allergens and sweeps them toward the bronchi. The bronchi are also covered with mucous membrane and ringed with cartilage (Marieb, 2004). Every single bronchus can be lined with mucous membrane layer. (Martini, 2000) and stretches into a lung where it subdivides creating smaller bronchioles (Watson, 2000). Bronchioles terminate with the alveoli which are the efficient units pertaining to gas exchange and are thin, moist and surrounded by capillaries (Clancy & McVicar 2001). Inhaled air travels through these air passage to the alveoli. Blood is usually pumped out of the heart through the pulmonary arterial blood vessels to the capillary vessels surrounding the alveoli. (Shaw, 2005) The oxygen with the inhaled surroundings diffuses out of the alveoli in the blood, whilst carbon dioxide inside the blood goes into the alveoli to be exhaled (Tortora & Grabowskie, 2003). The oxygen-rich blood is definitely returned towards the heart throughout the pulmonary veins. The lung area can grow and contract without rubbing during breathing due to the pleura, a thin membranous composition (Tamir, 2002). The visceral pleura encompass the lungs, while the parietal pleura collection the wall membrane of the thoracic cavity. These types of pleura are separated by a small fluid-filled space known as the pleural cavity. Fresh air requires operate and before the lungs can be inflated, a pressure alter must occur. The elastic properties with the lung let ventilation to take place more efficiently and the fluid inside the pleural cavity serves as a lubricant that permits the lungs to slide against the breasts wall (Marieb, 2004).

John notified employees that having been diagnosed with COPD twelve months back by his general practitioner (G. P. ). He added that he repeatedly traveled to his G. P. as he had been sense breathless, that was becoming worse and was present each day, more so when he exercised. This kind of breathlessness he revealed was accompanied by a coughing alongside sputum production. John's G. G inquired if he smoked cigarettes and how a large number of, John knowledgeable him he has smoked cigarettes around 35 cigarettes a day for 42 years. The...

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